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Finally, another point to bear in mind is that period and cohort life expectancy estimates are statistical measures, and they do not take into account any person-specific factors such as lifestyle choices. Clearly, the length of life for an average person is not very informative about the predicted length of life for a person living a particularly unhealthy lifestyle.

How is life expectancy calculated?

In practical terms, estimating life expectancy entails predicting the probability of surviving successive years of life, based on observed age-specific mortality rates. How is this actually done?

Age-specific mortality rates are usually estimated by counting (or projecting) the number of age-specific deaths in a time interval (e.g. the number of people aged 10-15 who died in the year 2005), and dividing by the total observed (or projected) population alive at a given point within that interval (e.g. the number of people aged 10-15 alive on 1 July 2015).

To ensure that the resulting estimates of the probabilities of death within each age interval are smooth across the lifetime, it is common to use mathematical formulas, to model how the force of mortality changes within and across age intervals. Specifically, it is often assumed that the proportion of people dying in an age interval starting in year and ending in year corresponds to , where is the age-specific mortality rate as measured in the middle of that interval (a term often referred to as the 'central death rate' for the age interval). 1

Once we have estimates of the fraction of people dying across age intervals, it is simple to calculate a 'life table' showing the evolving probabilities of survival and the corresponding life expectancies by age. Here is an example of a life table from the US , and this tutorial from MEASURE Evaluation explains how life tables are constructed, step by step (see Section 3.2 'The Fergany Method').

Period life expectancy figures can be obtained from 'period life tables' (i.e. life tables that rely on age-specific mortality rates observed from deaths among individuals of different age groups at a fixed point in time). And similarly, cohort life expectancy figures can be obtained from 'cohort life tables' (i.e. life tables that rely on age-specific mortality rates observed from tracking and forecasting the death and survival of a group of people as they become older).

For some countries and for some time intervals, it is only possible to reconstruct life tables from either period or cohort mortality data. As a consequence, in some instances—for example in obtaining historical estimates of life expectancy across world regions —it is necessary to combine period and cohort data. In these cases, the resulting life expectancy estimates cannot be simply classified into the 'period' or 'cohort' categories.

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Sinusitis occurs when the hollow spaces around the nasal passages are inflamed. Chronic sinusitis is sinusitis for 12 or more weeks that does not respond to medical intervention.

The most common cause of chronic sinusitis is infection from bacteria, viruses or fungi or allergies that are not well controlled. The sinuses are lined with tiny hair-like cilia that work to sweep away mucous. When infection or allergy causes the membranes in the sinuses to swell these cilia can’t do their job properly. Bacteria, viruses or even fungi can start to colonize the sinuses. In addition, growths known as polyps can block sinus passages and keep sinuses from draining properly.

The most prominent symptom is pain, pressure and a feeling of fullness around the forehead, nose, cheeks and eyes. Swelling might even be visible. Other common symptoms of chronic sinusitis include:

You can seek treatment for chronic sinusitis from your primary care physician, but they are not the experts in treating this condition. Your best treatment will come from an otolaryngologist or as they are commonly known, an ENT. ENTs are specially trained to treat chronic sinusitis with medical and surgical interventions.

First the ENT will determine this cause of the condition. This involves taking a complete medical history and performing a physical examination of your nose. In addition, an endoscope may be used to examine the sinuses and take nasal cultures. CT or MRI images may be captured. Once the cause is determined appropriate treatment will begin.This can include:

There are many minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be used to treat chronic sinusitis. If you have sinusitis that occurs over and over again or if you have sinusitis that won’t go away, call the ENT and schedule an appointment for an evaluation today.

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